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Olive oil is a basic constituent of the Mediterranean diet. Present production of olives (Olea europaea) is about 17.5 million tons green and black table olives and 3.1 million tons olive oil from 10.5 million ha. Of the total production,

86% is produced in the Mediterranean region with Spain and Italy being the main producing countries. Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Tunisia are the world's major olive oil producing countries, accounting for the above-mentioned 86% of world olive oil output. In the last few years olive cultivation is steadily expanding to more geographical zones, in response to increased olive oil consumption owing to its nutritional value and recognized health benefits. The olive oil consumption is steadily increasing in the world, while main olive oil producing countries are also the main olive oil consumers. European Union accounts for 71% of the world consumption. Mediterranean basin countries represent 77% of the world consumption. Other important consuming markets are United States, Canada, Australia and Japan.

The crop is mainly distributed between 25° – 40° North & South latitudes and flourishes well in Mediterranean region characterized by mild, rainy winter and a hot, dry summer. The crop requires a winter chilling period of about two months with average temperatures varying between 1.5°C to 10°C for flower bud differentiation.
Some cultivars are adapted to areas with higher winter temperatures but reduced flowering is noted under these conditions. High temperatures and dry winds cause poor fruit setting and excessive drop of young fruits with remaining fruits shriveling on the tree. Areas receiving a mean annual rainfall of 400 to 700 mm are most suitable for olive growing. Supplemental irrigation during summer increase fruit yields by 30 to 50 %. A long, sunny, warm summer results in a high oil content of the fruit. Olives perform well with humidity varying between 40 – 65 %. High humidity, above 80%, at flowering causes flower drop and infestation of sooty mould. Olive is a long-day plant and benefits from prolonged sunlight (2400 to 2700 sunshine hours annually) and warm environment. Important varieties include Arbequina, Barnea, Koroneiki, Manzanillo, Kalamata and Arbosana.

Olive trees will grow and readily adapt to a wide variety of soil types: deep, well drained, clay loams, sandy loam, silt loam & silty clay loams with an optimum soil pH of 5.0 – 7.5. The crop produces acceptable yields even on poor soil as long as it is deep, well-aerated and free from water logging. Under waterlogged conditions damage through lack of oxygen and fungal diseases increases sharply. The olive tree is moderately tolerant to soil salinity.

Olives can be propagated in several ways – from seeds, cuttings, truncheons and from tips of branches, but the most popular system for modern olive growing is propagation by rooted cuttings. In practice olives are cultivated in three main production systems according to tree density. Traditional (7 – 20 m spacing with a density of 30 – 200 trees/ha), intensive (intra-row spacing of 3 – 4 m & inter-row spacing of 6 – 8 m with densities of 250 – 600 trees/ha) and super-intensive (inter row spacing of 3 – 4 m and intra-row spacing of 0.9 – 1.5 m to achieve a desired plant population of 1655 – 2990 trees/ha) production systems.

Adoption of drip irrigation and fertigation in olives proved to be technically feasible and economically viable and beneficial in many ways in several countries of the world. Drip irrigation in many diverse agro-ecological situations registered higher olive oil yield (30 to 50%), saving in water (30 to 45%), and improving oil qualitative characteristics, in comparison to rain fed and surface flood irrigation methods.
Under Israeli arid environment conversion of 7-year old 80 ha of rain fed olives to subsurface drip irrigation registered an average increase of 172% in fruit yield and 115% increase in oil yield over rain fed crop. Likewise appreciable improvement was observed in peroxide value and fruitiness as well as lowered fruit bitterness and pungency.

For high yields, the seasonal crop water requirements for olive crop were estimated to be 350 to 600 mm/ha for intensive and 600 to 800 mm/ha for traditional orchards under range of climatic conditions with a peak daily evapotranspiration rate of 2 to 3 mm/day. Olive is a heavy feeder of nutrients. Root system is shallow and fibrous, hence fertigation is recommended for higher nutrient availability and use efficiency. The aim of the fertigation program is to cover the difference between crop demand and supply. The nutrient requirements of drip irrigated olives are relatively high.

Other best management practices include pruning and training of trees, monitoring and protection of crop from pests and diseases, need based weed control, mechanical harvesting and post harvesting operations to minimize oil yield losses.

Australia: Planning an olive irrigation system by Netafim Australia

Recommended guidelines on behalf of Netafim Australia


Spain: Yield response of a mature olive orchard to water deficit

Summary of a paper published in the Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 128:425-431, 2003
Courtesy of Netafim University


Spain: Effect of Variable Water Irrigation Supply in Olive Fruit and Oil Pr

Irrigation systems have been recently installed in rain fed adult olive orchards and new drip irrigated olive orchards have been planted in the Aragon region of Spain (Southeast of Saragossa). The objective of the present study was to determine the response of adult olive trees to variable water quantities applied through drip irrigation.


Turkey: Economics of drip irrigation of olives

Olive growing is an important crop in Turkey, having 17% of the total world table olive production. Water is a limiting factor for olive production in the study region, 250 Km south of Istanbul (vicinity of the City of Iznik, Province of Bursa). Presently furrow and sprinkler irrigation are the prevalent methods, but drip irrigation, because of its inherent advantages, is becoming more popular.

This economic analysis was done to help olive growers make intelligent decisions regarding investments in drip irrigation.


Olives Success story, Israel

Olive oil is a basic constituent of the Mediterranean diet. Consumption has significantly increased in the past few years owing to its nutritional value and recognized benefits for human health. Traditionally, olive (Olea europaea L.) is a tree species grown in arid environments, with little rainfall occurring during the periods of major plant water demands.

Many adaptive anatomical and physiological mechanisms allow it to withstand damage caused by drought stress reducing vegetative growth and yield performance. Olive cultivation is steadily expanding throughout many countries, in response to increased oil consumption. Efforts are being made towards improving the agronomic practices aimed at increasing yields and reducing costs while maintaining oil quality without harming the environment.

Some of the technical targets include the reduction of alternate bearing and mechanizing cultivation and harvest. Under such schemes optimizing the water regime is essential for best tree growth and oil production while ensuring efficient water use by the crop. Irrigation affects the olive yield, fruit size distribution (fresh weight and volume) and qualitative characteristics of the fruit. In addition to morphological and biochemical changes, soil water availability influences phenology and time of fruit maturation. Today, throughout the Mediterranean region, it is common to find the conversion of traditionally raised rain fed olive orchards to irrigation in an effort to improve productivity. However, the availability of water for irrigation is decreasing due to increased alternative demands for water mainly by industry and households, high energy costs of pumping and distribution as well as decreased water quality.

Future scenarios predict that in most Mediterranean countries where olive cultivation is concentrated per capita, availability in 2025 will decrease by 50% with respect to 1987. Therefore, new innovative sustainable technologies are needed not only for raising and sustaining olive productivity per hectare but also to achieve a consistent supply of quality fruits.
Parallel to meeting a growing olive oil demand on an international level, the challenge for olives is to be competitive in the global market and be supplied at a lower cost while using scarce and expensive resources such as water and fertilizers.


  • Food and agro-industrial crop
  • Climatic change and water scarcity concerns
  • Rising fertilizer and labor costs
  • Leaching and washing away of nutrients by runoff
  • Low water and fertilizer use efficiency
  • Low oil productivity per hectare under rain fed dry lands
  • Promising crop and expanding market

Why is drip needed?

  • Economic importance of olives in meeting growing oil demand.
  • Recognized health benefits.
  • To conserve water, increase water and fertilizer use efficiency and optimize olive fruit and oil yields.
  • Name of the cooperative
  • Iksal irrigation cooperative

Farm details
Location: Iksal irrigation cooparative, Iksal (32° 94' 0" N-latitude, 35° 08' 0" E-longitude), Afula, Israel
Area: 80 ha
Crop variety: Souri
Crop spacing: Row to row – 7.0 m and plant to plant – 8.0 m
Seed rate: 178 rooted cuttings/ha
Plant population at harvest: 178 trees/ha
Other related details: Year of planting: 1994; irrigation commencement year: 2001; crop age at the start of irrigation: 7 years; harvesting season: End of October- end of December every year

  • Arid climate with hot summer and mild winter, frost free
  • Maximum temperature: 18 – 31°C
  • Minimum temperature: 9 – 21°C
  • Mean vapor pressure: 9 – 20 hPa
  • Mean wind speed: 6.2 – 11 km/hour
  • Sunshine duration: 2.4 – 9.4 hours
  • Rainfall: 641 mm/year; effective rainfall: 520 mm/year
  • Reference crop evapotranspiration: 1394 mm/year
  • Moisture availability index: -0.54
  • Other climate-related indicators: Aridity index: 0.46

Soil physical properties:

  • Clayey soil texture
  • Soil pH: 7.9
  • Bulk density: 1.3 – 1.4 g/cm3
  • Water table: Below 6 m
  • Soil chemical properties: N (20 mg/kg), P (<5 mg/kg), K (2.5 meq/100 soil)
  • Soil salinity (ECe): 1.95 dS/m

Water source: National water carrier system
Power source: Gravity pressure

Agro-solution: What has been done?
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system
Head control unit, main and sub-main pipes besides Ram integral drip line 16 mm diameter, with a lateral spacing of 7.0 m, emitter spacing of 0.75 m and emitter flow rate 2.3 Liters/hour.
Each tree row was irrigated by one dripline laid 1.0 m away from the tree trunk parallel to the rows below the soil 0.15 to 0.25 m depth.
Year of drip system installation: 2001

Agronomic and technical support
Crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling: Depth and frequency of water application; water quality consideration and measurement of applied water.

Fertigation scheduling:
Soil and water analysis, estimation of nutrient dose, selection of fertilizers and compatibility, application skill via drip system and foliar diagnosis for nutrient deficiencies.
System operation and maintenance: Pressure reading, valves operation, measurement of applied water. Cleaning of filters, fertilizer tank, acid treatment, chlorination, etc.Training and capacity building: Soil water plant relationships, drip irrigation and fertigation principles, benefits, limitations and utility; water quality and herbicide usage.

Improved olive fruit yield: Conventional rain fed orchard – 4.6 tons/ha and with subsurface drip yield of olive fruit increased by 174% (12.6 tons/ha).
Improved olive oil yield: Conventional rain fed orchard – 1.1 tons/ha and with subsurface drip yield of olive oil increased by 118% (2.4 tons/ha).
Improved olive oil quality: Similar free fat acid (FFA), increase in fruitiness; and decreased bitterness and pungency in comparison to overhead sprinkler irrigation.
Irrigation water requirement: Conventional rain fed, only rainfall, and with subsurface drip 3500 – 4000 m3/ha (350 – 400 mm/ha).
Economic indices: Higher net returns by subsurface drip in comparison to rain fed crop
Additional benefits: Uniform canopy development, higher fruit size, improvement in fertilizer use efficiency, management flexibility, less weed growth and uniform irrigation of olives on undulated terrains.

Drip irrigation of rain fed traditional olive orchards in Israel is a feasible eco-technological and economically viable technological option.
Use of scarce water resources in a sustainable way in olive farming brings larger area under olive cultivation.
Higher productivity and fruit quality characteristics, edible oil security, health benefits and increased income for farmers.
Olive best management practices – Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and Fertigation scheduling.

Grow More 172% olive fruit and 115% oil olive yield
With Less Fertilizers, weed and olive bitterness

Contact Netafim Ltd., Israel by E-mail

Netafim Ltd., Israel (Hebrew)

Olive crop based training

Olive half-day seminar: Grow More with Less
Seminar code: olive-sem-1d-eng-v1

Date and Venue
This crop-oriented program is for demonstration purposes only. However, it may be revised to suit any date or any venue around the world.

Many adaptive anatomical and physiological mechanisms allow the olive crop to withstand damaged caused by drought stress reducing vegetative growth and yield performance. Olive cultivation is steadily expanding in many countries, in response to increased oil consumption. Efforts are being made towards improving the agronomic practices, aimed at increasing yield and reducing costs, while maintaining oil quality without harming the environment.
Future scenarios predict that in most Mediterranean countries where the olives cultivation is concentrated per capita, availability in 2025 will decrease by 50% with respect to 1987. Therefore, new innovative sustainable technologies are needed not only for raising and sustaining the olive productivity per hectare but also for consistent supply of quality fruits to the global market.
Drip irrigation, invented by Netafim in 1965, is an acknowledged modern technique for achieving high efficiencies in water and nutrient use under an up-to-date sustainable agriculture.
The drip system is specifically designed to enable olive growers to use existing infrastructure. Drip system provides fast return on investment, and provides a modern maintenance and management system.
Proven olive field experiments, conducted in cooperation with Netafim in Mediterranean countries as well as in Australia, revealed that drip irrigation is economical for olive growers.
At Netafim we are committed to share our know-how and that's why we have created Netafim University (link to NU intro). We aim to bring you our profound global and local experience as we believe that "An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest.” (Benjamin Franklin)
This crop seminar provides you with more knowledge and less open questions in order to plan to grow more olive fruit yield, more olive oil yield with less fertilizers and less fruit bitterness, or as we say - Grow More With Less.

Seminar objectives

  • Upon completion of this seminar, participants will:
  • Understand the benefits of drip irrigation for olive growers
  • Be familiar with the "Netafim solution" for olive growers
  • Recognize the economical benefits of Netafim's approach, highlighting efficient crop fertilization, uniformity of water usage, increase in yield per hectare and decrease of environmental damage.
  • Identify the first steps required in order to acquire additional information about drip irrigation.
  • Program

Who is this seminar targeting?
Farmers who grow olive in the region.

Content supervision
Dr. Fathi Abd El-Hadi, Olive Knowledge Leader, Netafim.

Lecturers and presenters

  • Netafim guest expert
  • Local Netafim representative
  • Local dealer representative
  • Local olive grower (host of venue)



Registration & cost
Participation in the seminar is free of charge.
The number of participants is limited. Please register in advance.

Transportation arrangements
According to location and needs of the participants.

Learning techniques & resources
Frontal lectures using audiovisual equipment, when possible.
Hard copy of the key presentations will be distributed on-site.
Access to Netafim glossary.



8:30 – 9:00 Gathering and registration
9:00 – 9:15 Greetings by your hosts
9:15 – 9:45 Think globally, act economically!
Global changes and their effect on olive oil. It's not only about the price per hectare.
9:45 – 10:45 What happens when olive meet drip irrigation?
The benefits of drip irrigation to olive growers in comparison to traditional irrigation,
The main components of the Netafim solution for olive growers.
10:45 – 11:00 Questions & Answers
11:00 – 11:15 Break. Light snacks will be served
11:15 – 11:45 Olive success story brought to you by a local grower or regional dealer
11:45 – 12:15 What’s in it for me? Economical decision-making when considering drip irrigation
12:15 – 13:00 Presentation of a drip system by familiarizing with few of its components in order to comply with the following saying: "Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.”
Confucius, Chinese philosopher and teacher (551-479 BC)
13:00 – 13:30 Seminar conclusion, practical advice and tips for the road.
Feedback forms

Olive Best practices

Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the best recommended agronomic practices for growing a specified crop. These practices are based on research and experience and apply to olive under the specified agro-ecological conditions.
The recommended BMPs are not the only way to grow olive but are the best way determined by Netafim. The BMPs may change as additional proven research becomes available.

Agro-ecological situation

Conditions: Between 25° – 40° North & South latitudes. Olive is a long day plant and flourishes well in climates having mild, rainy winter and a hot, dry summer; winter chilling period of about two months; Average temperatures between 1.5°C and 10°C for flower bud differentiation
Solar radiation: 2400 – 2700 hours/annum
Rainfall: 400 to 700 mm/annum
Relative humidity: 45 to 65% - less than 80% at flowering causes flower drop and infestation of sooty mould
Optimum ambient temperatures: Photosynthesis (15 – 30°C), bud sprouting (9 – 10°C), bud growth (14 – 16°C), blooming & pollination (18 – 19°C), fruit set (21 – 22°C) 

Soil suitability: Fertile, deep (up to 1.5 m), well drained and aerated soil; clay loams, sandy loam, silt loam and silty in texture
Bulk density: 1.1 to 1.4 Mg/m3
Moderate topography: 1 to 3º
Optimum soil pH: 5.0 - 7.5
Available water holding capacity: 150 mm/m depth of soil
Groundwater table: below 5 m
Critical soil salinity level (ECe): Below 4.5 dS/m above which yield decreases
Soil to avoid: Waterlogged, alkaline and saline soils 

For on-row harvesters: Arbiquena, Arbosana and Korenieki
For shakers: Most of the well-known varieties in the world are adapted, including Barnea, Picual, Coratina, Lecceno and Pichiline. 

Land preparation

  • Clod free seedbed with good tilth to express its olive yield potential, SDI installation and optimal soil water air relations.
  • Destroy the hard pan if any using either a chisel plough or a subsoiler.
  • Primary tillage by mould board plough or disc plough and secondary tillage by disc harrows, tyned harrows or rotavator to achieve proper tilth.
  • Organic manure: 40 – 50 m3/ha as raw

Planting material
Vegetative propagation
Healthy rooted cuttings

Planting pattern

Production systems & spacing  

  • Traditional: 7 – 20 m spacing with a density of 30 – 200 trees/ha
  • Intensive: inter-row spacing of 6 – 8 m and intra-row spacing of 3 – 4 m with densities of 250 – 600 trees/ha
  • Super intensive: inter row spacing of 3 – 4 m and intra-row spacing of 0.9 – 1.5 m to achieve a desired plant population of 1655 – 2990 trees/ha

Planting time
Year round except July - August and November - January 

Weed control
Managing weeds is critical for successful olive production since they compete for light, water, and nutrients.
Integrated weed control program involving inter-cultivation, organic mulches, fabric mulches and herbicide chemical applications.
Recommended pre-mergence herbicides: Oxyflouron & Terbotrin
Recommended post-emergence herbicides: Simazin & Dioron 

Irrigation system
Drip version – Surface during the first two years followed by subsurface drip irrigation, later on combined with fertigation. Fertigation is the application of plant nutrients through an irrigation system, also known as Nutrigation. 

Drip product: Uniram AS
Number of laterals per row: Two laterals per row in traditional and intensive and one lateral per row in super-intensive orchards
Effective drip line spacing: Traditional (5 – 10 m), Intensive (3 – 4 m) and Super-intensive (3 – 4)
Emitter spacing: 0.50 m to 0.75 m depending on soil texture
Emitter flow rate: 1.0 to 1.6 LPH depending on soil texture
Drip Line installation depth in SDI: 0.3 m 

Crop water requirement & irrigation scheduling
Estimate crop water requirements as a product of daily reference crop evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith method and crop coefficient for a given day according to the plant developmental stages.
Begin with 0.3 Kc of daily ETo and increase it to 0.65 according to crop developmental stages
Peak crop water requirement: 2 – 3 mm/day
Seasonal crop water requirement: Intensive 350 – 600 mm/ha/year and traditional 600 – 800 mm/ha/year under drip irrigation for range of environments 

Apply mineral fertilizers based on the targeted yield, leaf nutrient analysis, results of fertilizer experiment, leaf deficiency symptoms, nutrient uptake, soil nutrient analysis, and nutrient recycling. 

Nutrient uptake:
0.3 – 0.58 kg N
0.26 – 0.62 kg P2O5
0.42 – 0.5 kg K2O per tree 

Optimum leaf nutrient levels are:
1.5 – 2.0% N
0.8 – 1.0% K
19 – 150 ppm B 

Recommended nutrient dose:
0.5–1.0 kg N + 0.15–0.30 kg P2O5 + 0.5–0.8 kg K2O, 0.2–0.4 kg B per tree and
200–300 kg N + 80–100 kg P2O5 + 450–500 kg K2O, 2.5–5.0 kg B per hectare 

For fertigation use only water soluble fertilizers such as:
urea (46% N)
potassium nitrate (13% N & 46% K2O)
monoammonium phosphate (12% N & 61% P2O5)
ammonium nitrate (34% N) 

Pruning & training
Pruning refers to a set of operations to control vegetative growth, improve canopy efficiency and regulate fruit yield.
Pruning method is determined based on farm size, land topography, labour availability, harvesting method, tree spacing and variety.
Different training systems include vase, globe, central leader, single-trunk-free canopy, bush, etc.
Manual pruning in family-owned small grooves and mechanical pruning in large grooves is cost effective. 

Pests & diseases
Important insect pests attacking olive trees include olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), Olive moth (Prays oleae), Jasmin moth (Glyphodes unionalis), Olive black scale (Saissetia oleae), Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae), Latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae), Olive mite (Oxyenus maxwelli), Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Branch and Trunk borer (Zeozera pyrinae).

Important diseases infecting olive trees include olive leaf spot (Spilocea oleaginea), Phytophtora root and crown rot, Verticilium wilt, and Anthracnose (Gloeosporium olivarum).

The main nematodes species attacking olive trees include Root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus vulnus), Citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans), and Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

The main bacteria attacking olive trees include Pseudomonas savastanoi and Olive viruses.

Detect outbreaks and identify problem areas through routine patrols.

Monitor economic threshold levels and take up appropriate plant protection measures. 

Harvesting management
For olive oil production stop irrigation for the weeks leading to harvest to avoid accumulation of high moisture content in the fruit and difficulties during oil extraction. Optimum moisture content is 50%.

Use freshly picked olives (no longer than 24 to 48 hours from picking to processor) for producing extra virgin olive oil.

Harvest olive fruits at the correct time. Immature fruit will give less oil. Use IOOC olive maturation index guide to ascertain the stages of ripening of olives. A maturity index enables growers to evaluate varieties in order to specify the oil quality the producer wants to obtain and repeat that oil quality in successive years.

For table olives the growers should pick when the olives are looking the nicest at the green or black stage.

Methods of harvesting include manual such as small hand rakes, picking bags with harness, pneumatic olive harvesters and limb shakers. Additional methods include mechanical harvesting such as trunk shakers, limb shakers, straddle harvesters and oscillating combs (singular or dual models). The traditional method of beating olives off the tree is not recommended. 

Olive oil yield
Under drip irrigation and fertigation a good commercial oil yield would be 1.0 – 1.2 tons/ha under traditional and 2 – 3 tons/ha under intensive and super-intensive productions systems.
Water utilization efficiency varies between 0.15 to 0.5 kg of oil per m3 of water.


How should I irrigate my olive grove?
The drip irrigation of olives has proved to be technically feasible and economically viable under a range of environments besides increasing oil yields, reducing alternate bearing and quality characteristics. Drip technology also allows significant saving in water, fertilizers, labor and energy required for pumping water. In the long run, financial analysis shows that drip is the most appropriate system for modern olive growing with higher economic returns.
How I can minimize alternate bearing in my olive trees?
Alternate bearing is a built-in characteristic of olive trees. It is controlled by an interaction between vegetative growth and fruit load. Horticultural intervention via pruning, thinning, nutrigation and proper irrigation scheduling, girdling and other cultural means can reduce and even eliminate alternate bearing in regions with favorable and stable climatic conditions.
How much does a drip irrigation system cost per hectare for olives?
The cost varies and depends on several factors. One of these factors is the production system- whether traditional wider row spaced or intensive and super-intensive narrow spaced olive groves.
One of the most expensive factors is the transport of water from the source to the field. It depends on the distance and elevation the water has to be conveyed by the pipelines.
A factor that can be pre-calculated is the amount of water one needs to apply to meet the peak crop evapotranspiration requirements during the crop’s peak demand. Another consideration is the soil texture which determines the emitter spacing. For example, sandy soils require closer emitter spacing and clayey soils require wider emitter spacing. This will have an additional impact on the system’s cost per unit area.
Should I use subsurface or surface drip system in olives?
Subsurface drip irrigation in olives has shown to have many agro-technical advantages. There is no need to recollect the dripline before every harvest cycle as the drip lines are protected from pruning and harvesting machinery damage. Water and fertilizers are applied directly to the root zone. Finally, the agro machinery can perform without interfering with the ongoing daily irrigation system protocols.
What are the main varieties recommended for olive cultivation?
For on-row harvesters, Arbiquena, Arbosana and Korenieki are recommended, whereas for shakers most of the well-known varieties in the world are adapted, including Barnea, Picual, Coratina, Lecceno and Pichiline.

Related links

Crop Water Information: Olive

Spain: Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oils and Olive-Pomace Oils

Worldwide Olive Oil Producers


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